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The Smartphone

The Smartphone is a mini computer mobile cellular device. Its feature comes with smart components & unique features.

The first telephone, the communication medium came to this world. It made everything easy, we need not go and meet a person for a conversation.

The concept of optics and optical fiber brought a good thing to make a signal travel constantly through a wire. In good order over the telephone came into existence, mobile phones evolved.

The rise of those mobile phones leads to the new evolution of humanity, people took off using only their fingers. Video calls in a dimensional display, operating system and software are where faking the control of the development.

What is a Smartphone?

The Smart stands for Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology. It’s a device that works as a mini computer and has operating system and other features which were not associated with the telephone.

It has some operational software inside, at which we called as an app. At this time operating systems on the phone will commonly be android, ios and Microsoft. It too serves as a portable media player, digital camera and GPS navigation devices.

Smartphone and Generations (2G, 3G, 4G)

The purpose of the smartphone got so indulged that the networking system also got involved. At first we had GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). It is used for transmitting mobile voice and data services.

With 2G (2nd generation cellular technology) network which made phone conversations easier and even introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.

These system made more efficient as it provided various networks to provide the services picture messages. It was significantly more efficient as it provided various networks to provide the services picture messages and MMS.

2G got upgraded to 3G. The general packet radio service turned out to be like 3 units with more speed. It is the upgrade for 2G and 2.5G GPRS networks, for the first internet speed.

3G finds application in wireless voice technology. Mobile internet access, Fixed wireless voice technology, mobile internet access, fixed wireless internet access, video calls, and mobile TV are some benefits from it.

3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 0.2 megabits per second. 3G presents localized services for accessing traffic and weather updates. These features reduce the communication barriers between people.

There was not enough for everyone they greed for more speed and functions. 4G the fourth generation technology fulfilled it with higher speed and eligibility. It included amended mobile web access.

If technology, gaming services, high definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.

Advantages of 4G

4G in smartphone brought up greater speed successively 3G, by downloading and uploading files very quickly. It gave an extremely high voice quality with a clear voice and video calling.

It benefited for multimedia services like video streaming, live TV etc. The network coverage area of 4G is vast. The security, privacy of 4G networks is assumed and has a higher bandwidth.

Inside of Smartphone (internal hard wares of a smartphone)

1. Display


Display technologies in the smartphone of today come in two types LCD and LED.

LCD (liquid crystal display)

It consists of the mirror in the back for the reflection, it is being covered by glass with a polarizing film on the bottom side and a common electrode plane made up of indium-tin oxide on the top. It uses IPS technology to solve the problem of the nemetic field effect matrix.

There are two types of matrix active and passive. Active matrix LCD is known also known as the thin film transistor display.

Its transistor is located at each pixel intersection, requiring less current to control the luminance of the pixel. For this reason, the current in an active matrix display can be switched on and off more frequently. Further It helps in improving screen refresh time.

Types of displays in the market

  • TFT LCD (Thin Layer Transistor Technology)
  • IPS LCD (In Place Switched)
  • Capacitive touch screen LCD
  • OLED (Organic Light emitting diode)
  • AMOLED (Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode)

2. Battery

Battery of smartphone

Batteries normally use lithium-ion technology that is either removable or non-removable in mobile devices. Some consist of metal oxide cathode made of a cobalt, nickel, manganese or iron mix.

The capacity of a battery is measured in MAH (Milliampere Hour): the rate of electron flow through the electrical conductor. In other words, it measures the amount of power a phone battery or power bank can hold.

3. System on Chip or SoC

Soc of smartphone

It comprises of CPU, GPU, LTE modem, display processor, video processor, etc… Most of the great companies of smartphone use system from ARM. ARM makes 32-bits and 64-bits RISC multi-core processors.

ARM functions produces its own processors and GPUs. It also licenses its design and system architecture to other companies. Therefore they are able to use their technology to make powerful and efficient SoCs.

4. Memory and Storage

memory storage

No smartphone can function without RAM and memory (system storage). The phone storage ROM is simply the memory of a phone used to store apps, files, multimedia etc., While internal memory, RAM is the memory where the operating system, application programs and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device’s processors.

5. Modems

Smartphones nee communication components to receive and send text messages and calls. That’s where modems come in, and every such manufacturer has their own brand of modems.

A cellular modem is a device that adds wireless 3G or 4G (LTE) connectivity to a desktop or laptop or any other OS operators.

6. Cameras

camera lens

The smartphone will have two camera lenses, rear and front. These cameras are simpler than separate digital cameras.

It has some other components featuring along with the camera such as flashlight and a sensor that detects the image to maintain brightness. In the first grow generation every smartphone companies are trying to make a bright aperture and a decent of megapixels for the camera.

The lens found in camera differs by their wide angle, telephoto, monochrome and the depth standard wide angle for a camera will be 27 or 28mm. The HDR technology helps you capture photos that have a dynamic range (Shadows to highlights).

The feature can be more beneficial than others, such as capturing landscapes, outdoor portraits in sunlight and in heavily backlightt scenes.

ISO (International Standards Organization) control: It is more sensitive to light. Places like interiors on overcast days, in caves, at gigs in darkroom etc. To capture a good photograph, the camera in this situation will bump up the ISO and levels the light intensity.

7. Sensors

A Sensor detects any sort of movement, the physical quantity, or any inputs from the environment. Like heat, light, gravity etc. Inside a smartphone it consists of five different types of sensors namely;


It detects the movement of the phone when it is being shaken or lift. Ever wonder why some smartphone tends to change the music when the phone is shaking? The work is done by the accelerometer.


When our phone is being tilted by turning on the auto- rotate mode, it always stays in the vertical form by the gravity. With the concept of the accelerometer and the gravity is made for the displays to be in landscape mode for standard size images or videos.

Digital Compass:

It is usually based on the magnetometer and provides a simple orientation in relation to the earth’s magnetic field. As a result, our phone knows which way is north, and it can auto-rotate our digital maps depending upon our physical orientation.

When we turn on the map applications on our phone, we see that it gives our direction with respect to our interface and location. With this, we can judge where to direct our phone with respect to the north pole.

Light Ambient Sensor:

It is being used in auto brightness option so that when we turn on the auto brightness the light will become brighter when the surrounding light is bright and when the surrounding light is not bright it will lower its brightness.

This operation will help the user to see his or her phone at a required amount of light with respect to the surrounding invisibility and to save power.

Proximity Sensor:

When we answer a call by bringing our phone near to our ear. The light of the phone gets off automatically. That’s because the proximity sensor gets activated right after when we receive the call. It will commonly be located near the call speaker.


So the thing that carrying in a pocket isn’t a dumb guy. It has a lot more or most of the things in it. We buy new phone that means we are tending to buy a possessing intelligence with a very good operating system.

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Yeshi Wangchuk

Yeshi Wangchuk

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